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Table of contents
Small business guides > A complete guide to inventory > Inventory management
Having a complete overview of your stock will help your business run smoothly and profitably, so where do you start?
Managing inventory consists of:
keeping track of goods – where they are and how long you’ve had them
knowing their value – what they cost and how much they’re selling for
forecasting demand – learning what sells and ordering accordingly
When you manage your inventory well, you can:
One of the main aims of inventory management is to hold inventory for less time. This reduces stock handling, lowers losses due to damage or spoilage, and reduces the risk of products becoming obsolete.
You’ll also find out which product lines are bringing in the most customers (highest sales), versus generating the most revenue, versus delivering the best margins. That’s all good to know.
You can see the value of your inventory and you want to manage it smartly. So what do you do?
Inventory optimisation is a big topic, and it can involve a lot of maths, but you don’t have to jump straight in the deep end. Here are three things you can do right now to get on the right track.
Financially speaking, not all stock is equal. A small proportion of items often drive a lot of your sales and profits. This is often called the 80/20 rule. An ABC analysis involves sorting your inventory into three broad categories:
A. The select few items that bring in most of your income
B. The OK performers that contribute a decent amount of income
C. The bulk of items that don’t earn much (due to low sales and/or prices)
Pay particular attention to your A inventory, because mistakes in that category can cost a lot of money. The C items require less of your attention. This exercise gives you a framework for prioritising your focus and energy.
Accurate estimates of what you will need are the backbone of good inventory management. It can seem like guesswork when first starting a business (see our guide on doing your first sales forecasts) – but it doesn’t have to stay that way.
Use your sales records to figure out what’s hot and what’s not. As time goes by, break sales down into daily, monthly, and quarterly reports so you can spot patterns. Use that as a guideline for placing your orders. You can overlay considerations like promotions, economic conditions, holidays and so on – but use past experience as a basis.
You can't always pick up the phone and order more inventory for tomorrow. Find out how long it takes to replenish certain supplies and factor it into your inventory management. It’s a simple step but it can help stop you from making the same mistakes over and over again.
You wouldn't leave a big pile of money in the middle of your shop floor, unattended and unprotected, right? Since stock has financial value, it's important to look after it sensibly too.
Inventory accounting is vital when it comes to reporting for tax and managing your business profitably.
1. What is inventory?
2. Types of inventory
3. Inventory management
4. Inventory accounting
5. Inventory management systems
6. Inventory management software
7. Where to next? Tools and guides by Xero
Your guide to inventory (2.1MB)