Chasing outstanding invoices

Invoices are often paid late. And some aren’t paid at all. So how do you handle outstanding invoices?

A small business owner chasing outstanding invoices

How to collect money

Some people – like credit control managers, accountants and debt collectors – make a living out of getting invoices paid. Their methods aren’t rocket science. Just a mix of persistence and courage. If you’ve got outstanding invoices, try their techniques. Here are their tips on how to collect money (and many experts recommend starting at number 4, by the way).

1. Write a payment request letter or email

This is your first move when someone is late paying an invoice, so there’s no need to overthink it. Open your note with a polite greeting, quote the invoice number, say when it was due, and ask when you can expect payment. There’s no need to explain what the invoice was for. The details should be on the invoice itself. Keep the letter or email really short.

2. Send an overdue invoice

You could send an overdue invoice, which is really just the original invoice with an ‘overdue’ stamp on it. Or you could simply re-attach the original invoice to your payment request email, with or without the overdue stamp.

3. What is a statement of accounts, and when should you send one?

A statement of accounts shows all the outstanding invoices a particular customer has with you. If someone has a few, by all means summarise them into one document or use your accounts software to generate a statement. But don’t expect it to hurry them up unless you follow with a phone call.

4. Make the dreaded phone call

Businesses that chase late payers by phone tend to get the best results. Customers can always screen your call but, once you have them on the line, it’s hard for them to ignore you. Don’t say too much. They’re the ones who need to do the talking. Just identify what’s overdue, ask when it will be paid, then wait in silence. Don’t get off the phone till they’ve told you when payment will arrive. You might want to get your bookkeeper or accountant to do this task.

5. Charge a late payment fee on your invoices

You can demand more money if payment is late, but you can’t do it out of the blue. You need a late-fee policy and it must be clearly communicated up front in your payment terms. This is a great reason to get an agreement signed before supplying anything.

Identify late fees on the invoice, too. Don’t make it complicated. Some businesses quote it as a percentage but you’re better off to do the maths for your customer. Say something like:

Total due by 1 June: $100

Total due after 1 June: $110

Write (or call) to tell a customer when they’ve entered late fee territory. You could even offer to waive the fee if the customer pays right away.

6. Cut them off until outstanding invoices are paid

Why would you keep providing goods or services that you’re not getting paid for? It’s unsustainable. If a customer stops paying, stop filling their orders. And tell them what bills need to be paid before you’ll start supplying them again.

This is an aggressive move and some customers will take offence. You need to be prepared to lose the business to do this.

7. Hire a debt collector to go after your overdue invoice

Debt collectors have a skill for getting overdue invoices paid. It should cost nothing to put them on a case, but they’ll take 25% or more of the money they collect. This is likely to bring an end to your relationship with the customer so make sure you’ve exhausted all your other options.

8. Call in the lawyers

If the debt collectors don’t make any progress, then you could go all the way and hire a lawyer. The specific legal action will depend on the type of organisation you’re dealing with. It’s different for sole proprietors, partnerships and companies. In other words, it can get complex – so use a specialist lawyer. Your debt collector might have inhouse legal expertise, or they may introduce you to a lawyer.

If your outstanding invoice stays unpaid

You have a lot of levers for getting paid, but sometimes none of them work. You may get stuck with an unpaid invoice. If that happens, you should write it off so your accounts reflect the lost income. That’s especially important if you’ve already paid tax on the income that was expected. The act of writing it off allows you to claim the tax back.

To reduce your chance of getting caught with an unpaid invoice in the future, consider doing credit checks on prospective customers before agreeing to work with them.


Xero does not provide accounting, tax, business or legal advice. This guide has been provided for information purposes only. You should consult your own professional advisors for advice directly relating to your business or before taking action in relation to any of the content provided.

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